The State-wise and item-wise value of output from agriculture, forestry, and fishing covers state-wise and item-wise values of output for the years 2011–12 to 2020–21 at constant (2011–12) and current prices. Of the total Gross Value Output (GVO) at Constant Prices (2011-12), the share of crops fell from 62.4% in 2011-12 to 54.9% during 2020-21.
Agriculture and allied activities play an important role in the Indian economy. Over the years, with improving technology, these sectors have undergone significant changes. Agriculture and allied activities remain the broadest economic sector demographically and contribute significantly to the nation’s growth and have a significant influence on the socio-economic fabric of the country.
Therefore, it is vital to examine how the value of output for various commodities from the agricultural and related sectors has changed over time in various States and UTs, both in nominal and real terms. The State-wise and item-wise value of output from agriculture, forestry and fishing, is the 15th publication covering state-wise and item-wise values of output for the years 2011–12 to 2020–21 at constant (2011–12) and current prices.
Data sources and collection Methodology
Data is sourced from multiple sources such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Directorates of Economics and Statistics of states and UTs, Coffee Board, Tea Board, Silk Board, Rubber Board, Food Corporation of India, Forest Survey of India, Central Bureau of Narcotics, Directorate of Areca nut & Spices Development, Cashew nut and Cocoa Development Board among many others.
The estimation of GVA involves the valuation of the products, by-products and ancillary activities at prices received by the producers after deducting the value of inputs consumed in the production stages at purchasers’ prices. The agriculture unit of the National Accounts Division (NAD), and the National Statistical Office (NSO) compiles and publishes the report.
The estimates at the prevailing prices of the current year are termed “at current prices”, while those prepared at base year prices (2011-12) are termed as “at constant prices”. The comparison of the estimates at constant prices, which means “in real terms”, over the years gives the measure of real growth. For a detailed understanding of the methodology of estimation, please refer to these NSO Publications, ‘National Accounts Statistics, Sources and Methods, 2012’ and ‘Changes in Methodology in the New Series on National Accounts (Base Year 2011-12)’
No significant improvement in the share of agriculture and allied activities in total GVA.
India holds the second largest arable land (156 million hectares) in the world. It is the second-largest producer of ground nuts, fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, and tea in the world, and third largest in cereals. It also ranks first in the production of jute and has the biggest herds of buffaloes and goats in the world, second in cattle and sheep, and is seventh in terms of chicken population. It ranks first in the production of milk, third in that of eggs, and fifth in that of meat.
Yet, the share of agriculture and allied activities in the total Gross Value Added (GVA) remains almost stagnant. In 2011-12, the share of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries in the total GVA at constant prices accounted for 18.5%, which grew to 20.3% of the GVA in 2020–21. Though the share of agriculture and allied activities is the highest in the last decade, it is nevertheless a minimal growth considering the strategic importance of the sector.
Share of Crops in the total output declined by 7 percentage points in the last decade.
Agriculture and allied activities are further divided into four main subsectors, namely crops, livestock, forestry and logging, and fishing and aquaculture. Of the total Gross Value Output (GVO) at Constant Prices (2011-12), the share of crops fell from 62.4% in 2011-12 to 54.9% during 2020-21. The share of livestock grew from 25.6% to 30.6%, while the share of forestry and logging rose from 7.8% to 8.4% during the same period. Fishing and aquaculture’s share increased from 4.2% to 6.1% during this period.
Five states account for 70% of all-India output of oilseeds.
The oilseeds group consists of soyabean, groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, coconut, castor, and others. The percentage share of soyabean in the total output of oilseeds at constant prices was 26.6% in 2011-12, which fell to 23.2% in 2020-21. A similar decline was observed in the share of coconut and castor which decreased from 12.5% to 9.9% and 10.6% to 6.6% respectively during the same period. Groundnut and rapeseed & mustard registered an increase in their shares from 23% to 28.5% and 20.9% to 26.3% respectively during the corresponding period.
Five states namely Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra account for more than two-thirds of the total all-India output of oilseeds in India. In 2020-21, Rajasthan tops with 20.9%, followed by Gujarat at 20%, Maharashtra at 13.1%, Madhya Pradesh at 11.8% and Tamil Nadu at 5.8%, when calculated at constant prices (2011-12).
Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for more than half of all India output of sugar crops in 2020-21.
Sugarcane, excluding ‘sugarcane used for gur making’, accounted for nearly 79% of the output of the ‘sugars’ group of crops in 2011-12. However, in 2020–21, its percentage in this group rose to around 81%. During this time, both the outputs of gur and sugarcane (apart from that utilized to make gur) fluctuated.
Six states namely Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, and Gujarat account for more than 90% of the all-India output of the ‘sugars’ group in 2020-21 at constant prices. Out of these six states, Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for more than half (50.9%) of all-India output, followed by Maharashtra at 19.5%, Karnataka at 7.7%, and Gujarat at 4.7%.
Interestingly, the share of Tamil Nadu in the Gross Value Output (GVO) of the ‘sugars’ group fell from 11.4% in 2011-12 to 3.5% in 2020-21 yet remains one of the top six states. The rest of the five states improved/maintained their share during this period.
Andhra Pradesh doubles its growth in the output of fishing and aquaculture in 2020-21
The Gross Value of Output at constant prices, of the fishing and aquaculture subsector progressively increased from nearly 80 thousand crores in 2011–12 to more than 159 thousand crores in 2020–21. The share of ‘Inland Fisheries’ out of the total in 2011-12 was 57.7%, which declined to 52.7% in 2020-21, while the same quantum of increase can be seen in marine fish during the same period.
The state-wise data shows that despite increasing the value of output in fishing and aquaculture over the years, the share of West Bengal out of overall India’s output has decreased from 24.6% in 2011-12 to 15.3% in 2020-21. The share of Kerala also fell from 5.9% to 2.9%, while on the contrary, the share of Andhra Pradesh rose significantly from 17.7% to 40% during the same period.